【政治】中國難民

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今天6月20日是聯合國的國際難民日(International Refugee Day),不禁讓人想起日前喧騰一時的素珠「中國難民說」。素珠的錯誤在於她的心態、行為與語氣,不過大家先不要暴怒,如果單純討論「中國難民」這四個字的實質內容,這四個字倒不見得有錯誤。

1951年聯合國「難民地位公約」(The Convention relating to the Status of Refugees)對難民的定義是這樣:

A refugee, according to the United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, is a person who is outside their country of citizenship because they have well-founded grounds for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, and is unable to obtain sanctuary from their home country or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country; or in the case of not having a nationality and being outside their country of former habitual residence as a result of such event, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to their country of former habitual residence.

大概可以簡單解釋為一國國民因為種種原因──種族、宗教、國籍、參與政治或社會團體等等──有可能遭受迫害並無法獲得國家保護而必須離開國境,無法返回

注意重點,重點是「無法獲得國家保護」。難民很可憐,但並不可恥,因為是國家辜負了你們,因此你們必須前往他國尋找安全、宜居環境。

所以很清楚的,難民其實是一個中性名詞,我們也不需要刻意作文章,更何況根據管仁健的查察(蔡正元錯了,「難民論」源自國民黨),當初媒體也稱來台的國府軍民為難民,所以稱「中國難民」其實沒有什麼錯誤。國民黨能夠辯稱來台的國府軍民並非難民的唯一理由,只有宣稱這些人屬於另一種身份定義──「國內流離失所者」(Internally Displaced Persons, IDPs)。所謂IDP的定義是這樣:

An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country’s borders. They are often referred to as refugees, although they do not fall within the current legal definition of a refugee.

簡單說就是因為種種原因而被迫離家,但還停留在國境內者。國民黨有可能藉由「台灣為中華民國二戰後收復之一省」的主張,稱來台的一兩百萬人為IDP。但是,這樣的主張脫離史實太遠,連蔣介石都知道、並稱台灣尚未為中華民國領土,故意拗這個就很無聊。

根據聯合國難民高級事務專員(United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee, UNHCR)辦公室統計,至2015年底,全球有6530萬人被迫離家,其中包括4080萬的IDPs,另有2130萬名難民,這代表有著幾乎和台灣人口一樣多的人們,在國境外無法回家。

被迫離家是一種人權迫害的形式,毫無疑問,無論是中國難民或是敘利亞難民,都是悲哀的時代現象,重點是來台的難民被收容安置,而且安家落戶,在世代流轉之間,脫去了難民的身份,接受了另一個故鄉,而台灣也接受了他們。蔡正元,你好歹是政策會執行長,不要再唯恐天下不亂、亂入一通了。

A place for thoughts on politics, sports and rock n’ roll by a lifelong rock fan, basketball junkie and proud Taiwanese. / 一個喜愛談論政治、運動、搖滾的自豪台灣人

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